# 11. Linear Algebraic Solvers

For problems that require the solution of linear systems of equations,
the SUNDIALS packages operate using generic linear solver modules
defined through the `SUNLinearSolver`

, or “SUNLinSol”, API.
This allows SUNDIALS packages to utilize any valid SUNLinSol
implementation that provides a set of required functions. These
functions can be divided into three categories. The first are the core
linear solver functions. The second group consists of “set” routines
to supply the linear solver object with functions provided by the
SUNDIALS package, or for modification of solver parameters. The last
group consists of “get” routines for retrieving artifacts (statistics,
residual vectors, etc.) from the linear solver. All of these functions
are defined in the header file `sundials/sundials_linearsolver.h`

.

The implementations provided with SUNDIALS work in coordination
with the SUNDIALS `N_Vector`

, and optionally `SUNMatrix`

,
modules to provide a set of compatible data structures and solvers for
the solution of linear systems using direct or iterative (matrix-based
or matrix-free) methods. Moreover, advanced users can provide a
customized `SUNLinearSolver`

implementation to any SUNDIALS package,
particularly in cases where they provide their own `N_Vector`

and/or
`SUNMatrix`

modules.

Historically, the SUNDIALS packages have been designed to specifically
leverage the use of either *direct linear solvers* or matrix-free,
*scaled, preconditioned, iterative linear solvers*. However,
matrix-based iterative linear solvers are also supported.

The iterative linear solvers packaged with SUNDIALS leverage scaling and preconditioning, as applicable, to balance error between solution components and to accelerate convergence of the linear solver. To this end, instead of solving the linear system \(Ax = b\) directly, these apply the underlying iterative algorithm to the transformed system

where

and where

\(P_1\) is the left preconditioner,

\(P_2\) is the right preconditioner,

\(S_1\) is a diagonal matrix of scale factors for \(P_1^{-1} b\),

\(S_2\) is a diagonal matrix of scale factors for \(P_2 x\).

SUNDIALS solvers request that iterative linear solvers stop based on the 2-norm of the scaled preconditioned residual meeting a prescribed tolerance, i.e.,

When provided an iterative SUNLinSol implementation that does not support the scaling matrices \(S_1\) and \(S_2\), the SUNDIALS packages will adjust the value of \(\text{tol}\) accordingly (see the iterative linear tolerance section that follows for more details). In this case, they instead request that iterative linear solvers stop based on the criterion

We note that the corresponding adjustments to \(\text{tol}\) in this case may not be optimal, in that they cannot balance error between specific entries of the solution \(x\), only the aggregate error in the overall solution vector.

We further note that not all of the SUNDIALS-provided iterative linear
solvers support the full range of the above options (e.g., separate
left/right preconditioning), and that some of the SUNDIALS packages
only utilize a subset of these options. Further details on these
exceptions are described in the documentation for each
`SUNLinearSolver`

implementation, or for each SUNDIALS package.

For users interested in providing their own SUNLinSol module, the
following section presents the SUNLinSol API and its implementation
beginning with the definition of SUNLinSol functions in
§11.1.1 – §11.1.3. This is followed by
the definition of functions supplied to a linear solver implementation in
§11.1.4. The linear solver return
codes are described in Table 11.1. The
`SUNLinearSolver`

type and the generic SUNLinSol module are defined in
§11.1.6. §11.1.8 lists the
requirements for supplying a custom SUNLinSol module and discusses some
intended use cases. Users wishing to supply their own SUNLinSol module are
encouraged to use the SUNLinSol implementations provided with SUNDIALS as a
template for supplying custom linear solver modules. The section that then
follows describes the SUNLinSol functions required by this SUNDIALS package,
and provides additional package specific details. Then the remaining sections
of this chapter present the SUNLinSol modules provided with SUNDIALS.

- 11.1. The SUNLinearSolver API
- 11.2. ARKODE SUNLinearSolver interface
- 11.3. CVODE SUNLinearSolver interface
- 11.4. CVODES SUNLinearSolver interface
- 11.5. IDA SUNLinearSolver interface
- 11.6. IDAS SUNLinearSolver interface
- 11.7. KINSOL SUNLinearSolver interface
- 11.8. The SUNLinSol_Band Module
- 11.9. The SUNLinSol_Dense Module
- 11.10. The SUNLinSol_KLU Module
- 11.11. The SUNLinSol_LapackBand Module
- 11.12. The SUNLinSol_LapackDense Module
- 11.13. The SUNLinSol_MagmaDense Module
- 11.14. The SUNLinSol_OneMklDense Module
- 11.15. The SUNLinSol_PCG Module
- 11.16. The SUNLinSol_SPBCGS Module
- 11.17. The SUNLinSol_SPFGMR Module
- 11.18. The SUNLinSol_SPGMR Module
- 11.19. The SUNLinSol_SPTFQMR Module
- 11.20. The SUNLinSol_SuperLUDIST Module
- 11.21. The SUNLinSol_SuperLUMT Module
- 11.22. The SUNLinSol_cuSolverSp_batchQR Module
- 11.23. SUNLinearSolver Examples