11.2. ARKODE SUNNonlinearSolver interface
As discussed in §2.2 integration steps often require the (approximate) solution of nonlinear systems. These systems can be formulated as the rootfinding problem
where \(z_i\) is the ith stage at time \(t_i\) and \(a_i\) is known data that depends on the integration method.
Alternately, the nonlinear system above may be formulated as the fixedpoint problem
where \(G(z_i)\) is the variant of the rootfinding problem listed above, and \(M(t^I_{n,i})\) may equal either \(M\) or \(I\), as applicable.
Rather than solving the above nonlinear systems for the stage value \(z_i\) directly, ARKODE modules solve for the correction \(z_{cor}\) to the predicted stage value \(z_{pred}\) so that \(z_i = z_{pred} + z_{cor}\). Thus these nonlinear systems rewritten in terms of \(z_{cor}\) are
for the rootfinding problem and
for the fixedpoint problem.
The nonlinear system functions provided by ARKODE modules to the nonlinear solver module internally update the current value of the stage based on the input correction vector i.e., \(z_i = z_{pred} + z_{cor}\). The updated vector \(z_i\) is used when calling the ODE righthand side function and when setting up linear solves (e.g., updating the Jacobian or preconditioner).
ARKODE modules also provide several advanced functions that will not be needed by most users, but might be useful for users who choose to provide their own SUNNonlinSol implementation for use by ARKODE. These routines provide access to the internal integrator data required to evaluate (11.1) or (11.2).
11.2.1. ARKODE advanced output functions
Two notable functions were already listed in §2.4.3.10.1:
ARKodeGetCurrentState()
– returns the current state vector. When called within the computation of a step (i.e., during a nonlinear solve) this is the current stage state vector \(z_i = z_{pred} + z_{cor}\). Otherwise this is the current internal solution state vector \(y(t)\). In either case the corresponding stage or solution time can be obtained fromARKodeGetCurrentTime()
.ARKodeGetCurrentGamma()
– returns the current value of the scalar \(\gamma\).
Additional advanced output functions that are provided to aid in the construction of usersupplied SUNNonlinSol modules are as follows.

int ARKodeGetCurrentMassMatrix(void *arkode_mem, SUNMatrix *M)
Returns the current mass matrix. For a time dependent mass matrix the corresponding time can be obtained from
ARKodeGetCurrentTime()
. Arguments:
arkode_mem – pointer to the ARKODE memory block.
M – SUNMatrix pointer that will get set to the current mass matrix \(M(t)\). If a matrixfree method is used the output is
NULL
.
 Return value:
ARK_SUCCESS
if successful.ARK_MEM_NULL
if the ARKStep memory wasNULL
.
Note
This is only compatible with timestepping modules that support implicit algebraic solvers.

int ARKodeGetNonlinearSystemData(void *arkode_mem, sunrealtype *tcur, N_Vector *zpred, N_Vector *z, N_Vector *Fi, sunrealtype *gamma, N_Vector *sdata, void **user_data)
Returns all internal data required to construct the current nonlinear implicit system (11.1) or (11.2):
 Arguments:
arkode_mem – pointer to the ARKODE memory block.
tcur – value of the independent variable corresponding to implicit stage, \(t^I_{n,i}\).
zpred – the predicted stage vector \(z_{pred}\) at \(t^I_{n,i}\). This vector must not be changed.
z – the stage vector \(z_{i}\) above. This vector may be not current and may need to be filled (see the note below).
Fi – the implicit function evaluated at the current time and state, \(f^I(t^I_{n,i}, z_{i})\). This vector may be not current and may need to be filled (see the note below).
gamma – current \(\gamma\) for implicit stage calculation.
sdata – accumulated data from previous solution and stages, \(\tilde{a}_i\). This vector must not be changed.
user_data – pointer to the userdefined data structure (as specified through
ARKodeSetUserData()
, orNULL
otherwise)
 Return value:
ARK_SUCCESS
if successful.ARK_MEM_NULL
if the ARKODE memory wasNULL
.
Note
This is only compatible with timestepping modules that support implicit algebraic solvers.
This routine is intended for users who whish to attach a custom
SUNNonlinSolSysFn
to an existingSUNNonlinearSolver
object (through a call toSUNNonlinSolSetSysFn()
) or who need access to nonlinear system data to compute the nonlinear system function as part of a customSUNNonlinearSolver
object.When supplying a custom
SUNNonlinSolSysFn
to an existingSUNNonlinearSolver
object, the user should callARKodeGetNonlinearSystemData()
inside the nonlinear system function to access the requisite data for evaluting the nonlinear systen function of their choosing. Additionlly, if theSUNNonlinearSolver
object (existing or custom) leverages theSUNNonlinSolLSetupFn
and/orSUNNonlinSolLSolveFn
functions supplied by ARKODE (through calls toSUNNonlinSolSetLSetupFn()
andSUNNonlinSolSetLSolveFn()
respectively) the vectors z and Fi must be filled in by the user’sSUNNonlinSolSysFn
with the current state and corresponding evaluation of the righthand side function respectively i.e.,\[\begin{split}z &= z_{pred} + z_{cor}, \\ Fi &= f^I\left(t^I_{n,i}, z_i\right),\end{split}\]where \(z_{cor}\) was the first argument supplied to the
SUNNonlinSolSysFn
.If this function is called as part of a custom linear solver (i.e., the default
SUNNonlinSolSysFn
is used) then the vectors z and Fi are only current whenARKodeGetNonlinearSystemData()
is called after an evaluation of the nonlinear system function.

int ARKodeComputeState(void *arkode_mem, N_Vector zcor, N_Vector z)
Computes the current stage state vector using the stored prediction and the supplied correction from the nonlinear solver i.e., \(z_i(t) = z_{pred} + z_{cor}\).
 Arguments:
arkode_mem – pointer to the ARKODE memory block.
zcor – the correction from the nonlinear solver.
z – on output, the current stage state vector \(z_i\).
 Return value:
ARK_SUCCESS
if successful.ARK_MEM_NULL
if the ARKODE memory wasNULL
.
Note
This is only compatible with timestepping modules that support implicit algebraic solvers.
11.2.2. ARKStep advanced output functions (deprecated)
Two notable functions were already listed in §2.4.7.1.10.1:
ARKStepGetCurrentState()
– returns the current state vector. When called within the computation of a step (i.e., during a nonlinear solve) this is the current stage state vector \(z_i = z_{pred} + z_{cor}\). Otherwise this is the current internal solution state vector \(y(t)\). In either case the corresponding stage or solution time can be obtained fromARKStepGetCurrentTime()
.ARKStepGetCurrentGamma()
– returns the current value of the scalar \(\gamma\).
Additional advanced output functions that are provided to aid in the construction of usersupplied SUNNonlinSol modules are as follows.

int ARKStepGetCurrentMassMatrix(void *arkode_mem, SUNMatrix *M)
Returns the current mass matrix. For a time dependent mass matrix the corresponding time can be obtained from
ARKStepGetCurrentTime()
. Arguments:
arkode_mem – pointer to the ARKStep memory block.
M – SUNMatrix pointer that will get set to the current mass matrix \(M(t)\). If a matrixfree method is used the output is
NULL
.
 Return value:
ARK_SUCCESS
if successful.ARK_MEM_NULL
if the ARKStep memory wasNULL
.
Deprecated since version 6.1.0: Use
ARKodeGetCurrentMassMatrix()
instead.

int ARKStepGetNonlinearSystemData(void *arkode_mem, sunrealtype *tcur, N_Vector *zpred, N_Vector *z, N_Vector *Fi, sunrealtype *gamma, N_Vector *sdata, void **user_data)
Returns all internal data required to construct the current nonlinear implicit system (11.1) or (11.2):
 Arguments:
arkode_mem – pointer to the ARKStep memory block.
tcur – value of the independent variable corresponding to implicit stage, \(t^I_{n,i}\).
zpred – the predicted stage vector \(z_{pred}\) at \(t^I_{n,i}\). This vector must not be changed.
z – the stage vector \(z_{i}\) above. This vector may be not current and may need to be filled (see the note below).
Fi – the implicit function evaluated at the current time and state, \(f^I(t^I_{n,i}, z_{i})\). This vector may be not current and may need to be filled (see the note below).
gamma – current \(\gamma\) for implicit stage calculation.
sdata – accumulated data from previous solution and stages, \(\tilde{a}_i\). This vector must not be changed.
user_data – pointer to the userdefined data structure (as specified through
ARKStepSetUserData()
, orNULL
otherwise)
 Return value:
ARK_SUCCESS
if successful.ARK_MEM_NULL
if the ARKStep memory wasNULL
.
Note
This routine is intended for users who whish to attach a custom
SUNNonlinSolSysFn
to an existingSUNNonlinearSolver
object (through a call toSUNNonlinSolSetSysFn()
) or who need access to nonlinear system data to compute the nonlinear system function as part of a customSUNNonlinearSolver
object.When supplying a custom
SUNNonlinSolSysFn
to an existingSUNNonlinearSolver
object, the user should callARKStepGetNonlinearSystemData()
inside the nonlinear system function to access the requisite data for evaluting the nonlinear systen function of their choosing. Additionlly, if theSUNNonlinearSolver
object (existing or custom) leverages theSUNNonlinSolLSetupFn
and/orSUNNonlinSolLSolveFn
functions supplied by ARKStep (through calls toSUNNonlinSolSetLSetupFn()
andSUNNonlinSolSetLSolveFn()
respectively) the vectors z and Fi must be filled in by the user’sSUNNonlinSolSysFn
with the current state and corresponding evaluation of the righthand side function respectively i.e.,\[\begin{split}z &= z_{pred} + z_{cor}, \\ Fi &= f^I\left(t^I_{n,i}, z_i\right),\end{split}\]where \(z_{cor}\) was the first argument supplied to the
SUNNonlinSolSysFn
.If this function is called as part of a custom linear solver (i.e., the default
SUNNonlinSolSysFn
is used) then the vectors z and Fi are only current whenARKStepGetNonlinearSystemData()
is called after an evaluation of the nonlinear system function.Deprecated since version 6.1.0: Use
ARKodeGetNonlinearSystemData()
instead.

int ARKStepComputeState(void *arkode_mem, N_Vector zcor, N_Vector z)
Computes the current stage state vector using the stored prediction and the supplied correction from the nonlinear solver i.e., \(z_i(t) = z_{pred} + z_{cor}\).
 Arguments:
arkode_mem – pointer to the ARKStep memory block.
zcor – the correction from the nonlinear solver.
z – on output, the current stage state vector \(z_i\).
 Return value:
ARK_SUCCESS
if successful.ARK_MEM_NULL
if the ARKStep memory wasNULL
.
Deprecated since version 6.1.0: Use
ARKodeComputeState()
instead.
11.2.3. MRIStep advanced output functions (deprecated)
Two notable functions were already listed in §2.4.10.2.9.1:
MRIStepGetCurrentState()
– returns the current state vector. When called within the computation of a step (i.e., during a nonlinear solve) this is the current stage state vector \(z_i = z_{pred} + z_{cor}\). Otherwise this is the current internal solution state vector \(y(t)\). In either case the corresponding stage or solution time can be obtained fromMRIStepGetCurrentTime()
.MRIStepGetCurrentGamma()
– returns the current value of the scalar \(\gamma\).
Additional advanced output functions that are provided to aid in the construction of usersupplied SUNNonlinSol modules are as follows.

int MRIStepGetNonlinearSystemData(void *arkode_mem, sunrealtype *tcur, N_Vector *zpred, N_Vector *z, N_Vector *Fi, sunrealtype *gamma, N_Vector *sdata, void **user_data)
Returns all internal data required to construct the current nonlinear implicit system (11.1) or (11.2):
 Arguments:
arkode_mem – pointer to the MRIStep memory block.
tcur – value of independent variable corresponding to slow stage (\(t^S_{n,i}\) above).
zpred – predicted nonlinear solution (\(z_{pred}\) above). This vector must not be changed.
z – stage vector (\(z_{i}\) above). This vector may be not current and may need to be filled (see the note below).
Fi – memory available for evaluating the slow implicit RHS (\(f^I(t^S_{n,i}, z_{i})\) above). This vector may be not current and may need to be filled (see the note below).
gamma – current \(\gamma\) for slow stage calculation.
sdata – accumulated data from previous solution and stages (\(\tilde{a}_i\) above). This vector must not be changed.
user_data – pointer to the userdefined data structure (as specified through
MRIStepSetUserData()
, orNULL
otherwise).
 Return value:
ARK_SUCCESS
if successful.ARK_MEM_NULL
if the MRIStep memory wasNULL
.
Note
This routine is intended for users who whish to attach a custom
SUNNonlinSolSysFn
to an existingSUNNonlinearSolver
object (through a call toSUNNonlinSolSetSysFn()
) or who need access to nonlinear system data to compute the nonlinear system function as part of a customSUNNonlinearSolver
object.When supplying a custom
SUNNonlinSolSysFn
to an existingSUNNonlinearSolver
object, the user should callMRIStepGetNonlinearSystemData()
inside the nonlinear system function to access the requisite data for evaluting the nonlinear systen function of their choosing. Additionlly, if theSUNNonlinearSolver
object (existing or custom) leverages theSUNNonlinSolLSetupFn
and/orSUNNonlinSolLSolveFn
functions supplied by MRIStep (through calls toSUNNonlinSolSetLSetupFn()
andSUNNonlinSolSetLSolveFn()
respectively) the vectors z and F must be filled in by the user’sSUNNonlinSolSysFn
with the current state and corresponding evaluation of the righthand side function respectively i.e.,\[\begin{split}z &= z_{pred} + z_{cor}, \\ Fi &= f^I\left(t^S_{n,i}, z_i\right),\end{split}\]where \(z_{cor}\) was the first argument supplied to the
SUNNonlinSolSysFn
.If this function is called as part of a custom linear solver (i.e., the default
SUNNonlinSolSysFn
is used) then the vectors z and Fi are only current whenMRIStepGetNonlinearSystemData()
is called after an evaluation of the nonlinear system function.Deprecated since version 6.1.0: Use
ARKodeGetNonlinearSystemData()
instead.

int MRIStepComputeState(void *arkode_mem, N_Vector zcor, N_Vector z)
Computes the current stage state vector using the stored prediction and the supplied correction from the nonlinear solver i.e., \(z_i = z_{pred} + z_{cor}\).
 Arguments:
arkode_mem – pointer to the MRIStep memory block.
zcor – the correction from the nonlinear solver.
z – on output, the current stage state vector \(z_i\).
 Return value:
ARK_SUCCESS
if successful.ARK_MEM_NULL
if the MRIStep memory wasNULL
.
Deprecated since version 6.1.0: Use
ARKodeComputeState()
instead.
11.3. CVODE SUNNonlinearSolver interface
As discussed in §3.2 each integration step requires the (approximate) solution of a nonlinear system. This system can be formulated as the rootfinding problem
or as the fixedpoint problem
where \(a_n\equiv\sum_{i>0}(\alpha_{n,i}y^{ni}+h_n\beta_{n,i} {\dot{y}}^{ni})\).
Rather than solving the above nonlinear systems for the new state \(y^n\) CVODE reformulates the above problems to solve for the correction \(y_{cor}\) to the predicted new state \(y_{pred}\) so that \(y^n = y_{pred} + y_{cor}\). The nonlinear systems rewritten in terms of \(y_{cor}\) are
for the rootfinding problem and
for the fixedpoint problem.
The nonlinear system functions provided by CVODE to the nonlinear solver module internally update the current value of the new state based on the input correction vector i.e., \(y^n = y_{pred} + y_{cor}\). The updated vector \(y^n\) is used when calling the ODE righthand side function and when setting up linear solves (e.g., updating the Jacobian or preconditioner).
CVODE provides several advanced functions that will not be needed by most
users, but might be useful for users who choose to provide their own
implementation of the SUNNonlinearSolver
API. For example, such a user
might need access to the current value of \(\gamma\) to compute Jacobian data.

int CVodeGetCurrentGamma(void *cvode_mem, sunrealtype *gamma)
The function
CVodeGetCurrentGamma
returns the current value of the scalar \(gamma\). Arguments:
cvode_mem – pointer to the CVODE memory block.
gamma – the current value of the scalar \(\gamma\) appearing in the Newton equation \(M = I  \gamma J\).
 Return value:
CV_SUCCESS
– The optional output value has been successfully set.CV_MEM_NULL
– The CVODE memory block wasNULL

int CVodeGetCurrentState(void *cvode_mem, N_Vector *y)
The function
CVodeGetCurrentState
returns the current state vector. When called within the computation of a step (i.e., during a nonlinear solve) this is \(y^n = y_{pred} + y_{cor}\). Otherwise this is the current internal solution vector \(y(t)\). In either case the corresponding solution time can be obtained fromCVodeGetCurrentTime
. Arguments:
cvode_mem – pointer to the CVODE memory block.
y – pointer that is set to the current state vector.
 Return value:
CV_SUCCESS
– The optional output value has been successfully set.CV_MEM_NULL
– The CVODE memory block wasNULL
.

int CVodeGetNonlinearSystemData(void *cvode_mem, sunrealtype *tcur, N_Vector *ypred, N_Vector *yn, N_Vector *fn, sunrealtype *gamma, sunrealtype *rl1, N_Vector *zn1, void **user_data)
The function
CVodeGetNonlinearSystemData
returns all internal data required to construct the current nonlinear system (11.3) or (11.4). Arguments:
cvode_mem – pointer to the CVODE memory block.
tn – current value of the independent variable \(t_n\).
ypred – predicted state vector \(y_{pred}\) at \(t_n\).
yn – state vector \(y^n\). This vector may be not current and may need to be filled (see the note below).
fn – the righthand side function evaluated at the current time and state, \(f(t_n, y^n)\). This vector may be not current and may need to be filled (see the note below).
gamma – current value of \(\gamma\).
rl1 – a scaling factor used to compute \(\tilde{a}_n = \texttt{rl1 * zn1}\).
zn1 – a vector used to compute \(\tilde{a}_n = \texttt{rl1 * zn1}\).
user_data – pointer to the userdefined data structures.
 Return value:
CV_SUCCESS
– The optional output values have been successfully set.CV_MEM_NULL
– The CVODE memory block wasNULL
.
 Notes:
This routine is intended for users who wish to attach a custom
SUNNonlinSolSysFn
to an existingSUNNonlinearSolver
object (through a call toSUNNonlinSolSetSysFn()
) or who need access to nonlinear system data to compute the nonlinear system function as part of a customSUNNonlinearSolver
object. When supplying a customSUNNonlinSolSysFn
to an existingSUNNonlinearSolver
object, the user should callCVodeGetNonlinearSystemData()
inside the nonlinear system function to access the requisite data for evaluting the nonlinear system function of their choosing. Additionlly, if theSUNNonlinearSolver
object (existing or custom) leverages theSUNNonlinSolLSetupFn
and/orSUNNonlinSolLSolveFn
functions supplied by CVODE (through calls toSUNNonlinSolSetLSetupFn()
andSUNNonlinSolSetLSolveFn()
, respectively) the vectorsyn
andfn
must be filled in by the user’sSUNNonlinSolSysFn
with the current state and corresponding evaluation of the righthand side function respectively i.e., \(yn = y_{pred} + y_{cor}\) and \(f_n = f\left(t_{n}, y^n\right)\) where \(y_{cor}\) was the first argument supplied to theSUNNonlinSolSysFn
. If this function is called as part of a custom linear solver (i.e., the defaultSUNNonlinSolSysFn
is used) then the vectorsyn
andfn
are only current whenCVodeGetNonlinearSystemData()
is called after an evaluation of the nonlinear system function.

int CVodeComputeState(void *cvode_mem, N_Vector ycor, N_Vector *yn)
The function computes the current \(y(t)\) vector based on stored prediction and the given correction vector from the nonlinear solver i.e., \(y^n = y_{pred} + y_{cor}\).
 Arguments:
cvode_mem – pointer to the CVODE memory block.
ycor – the correction.
yn – the output vector.
 Return value:
CV_SUCCESS
– The optional output value has been successfully set.CV_MEM_NULL
– The CVODE memory block wasNULL
11.4. CVODES SUNNonlinearSolver interface
As discussed in §4.2 each integration step requires the (approximate) solution of a nonlinear system. This system can be formulated as the rootfinding problem
or as the fixedpoint problem
where \(\displaystyle a_n\equiv\sum_{i>0}(\alpha_{n,i}y^{ni}+h_n\beta_{n,i} {\dot{y}}^{ni})\).
Rather than solving the above nonlinear systems for the new state \(y^n\) CVODES reformulates the above problems to solve for the correction \(y_{cor}\) to the predicted new state \(y_{pred}\) so that \(y^n = y_{pred} + y_{cor}\). The nonlinear systems rewritten in terms of \(y_{cor}\) are
for the rootfinding problem and
for the fixedpoint problem. Similarly in the forward sensitivity analysis case the combined state and sensitivity nonlinear systems are also reformulated in terms of the correction to the predicted state and sensitivities.
The nonlinear system functions provided by CVODES to the nonlinear solver module internally update the current value of the new state (and the sensitvities) based on the input correction vector(s) i.e., \(y^n = y_{pred} + y_{cor}\) and \(s_i^n = s_{i,pred} + s_{i,cor}\). The updated vector(s) are used when calling the righthand side function and when setting up linear solves (e.g., updating the Jacobian or preconditioner).
CVODES provides several advanced functions that will not be needed by most
users, but might be useful for users who choose to provide their own
implementation of the SUNNonlinearSolver
API. For example, such a user might
need access to the current value of \(\gamma\) to compute Jacobian data.

int CVodeGetCurrentGamma(void *cvode_mem, sunrealtype *gamma)
The function
CVodeGetCurrentGamma()
returns the current value of the scalar \(\gamma\). Arguments:
cvode_mem
– pointer to the CVODES memory block.gamma
– the current value of the scalar \(\gamma\) appearing in the Newton equation \(M = I  \gamma J\).
 Return value:
CV_SUCCESS
– The optional output value has been successfully set.CV_MEM_NULL
– The CVODES memory block wasNULL

int CVodeGetCurrentState(void *cvode_mem, N_Vector *y)
The function
CVodeGetCurrentState()
returns the current state vector. When called within the computation of a step (i.e., during a nonlinear solve) this is \(y^n = y_{pred} + y_{cor}\). Otherwise this is the current internal solution vector \(y(t)\). In either case the corresponding solution time can be obtained fromCVodeGetCurrentTime()
. Arguments:
cvode_mem
– pointer to the CVODES memory block.y
– pointer that is set to the current state vector.
 Return value:
CV_SUCCESS
– The optional output value has been successfully set.CV_MEM_NULL
– The CVODES memory block wasNULL
.

int CVodeGetNonlinearSystemData(void *cvode_mem, sunrealtype *tcur, N_Vector *ypred, N_Vector *yn, N_Vector *fn, sunrealtype *gamma, sunrealtype *rl1, N_Vector *zn1, void **user_data)
The function
CVodeGetNonlinearSystemData()
returns all internal data required to construct the current nonlinear system (11.5) or (11.6). Arguments:
cvode_mem
– pointer to the CVODES memory block.tn
– current value of the independent variable \(t_n\).ypred
– predicted state vector \(y_{pred}\) at \(t_n\).yn
– state vector \(y^n\). This vector may be not current and may need to be filled (see the note below).fn
– the righthand side function evaluated at the current time and state, \(f(t_n, y^n)\). This vector may be not current and may need to be filled (see the note below).gamma
– current value of \(\gamma\).rl1
– a scaling factor used to compute \(\tilde{a}_n = \texttt{rl1 * zn1}\).zn1
– a vector used to compute \(\tilde{a}_n = \texttt{rl1 * zn1}\).user_data
– pointer to the userdefined data structures.
 Return value:
CV_SUCCESS
– The optional output values have been successfully set.CV_MEM_NULL
– The CVODES memory block wasNULL
.
 Notes:
This routine is intended for users who wish to attach a custom
SUNNonlinSolSysFn
to an existingSUNNonlinearSolver
object (through a call toSUNNonlinSolSetSysFn()
) or who need access to nonlinear system data to compute the nonlinear system function as part of a customSUNNonlinearSolver
object.When supplying a custom
SUNNonlinSolSysFn
to an existingSUNNonlinearSolver
object, the user should callCVodeGetNonlinearSystemData()
inside the nonlinear system function to access the requisite data for evaluting the nonlinear system function of their choosing. Additionlly, if theSUNNonlinearSolver
object (existing or custom) leverages theSUNNonlinSolLSetupFn
and/orSUNNonlinSolLSolveFn
functions supplied by CVODES (through calls toSUNNonlinSolSetLSetupFn()
andSUNNonlinSolSetLSolveFn()
, respectively) the vectorsyn
andfn
must be filled in by the user’sSUNNonlinSolSysFn
with the current state and corresponding evaluation of the righthand side function respectively i.e.,\[\begin{split}\texttt{yn} &= y_{pred} + y_{cor},\\ \texttt{fn} &= f\left(t_{n}, y^n\right)\end{split}\]where \(y_{cor}\) was the first argument supplied to the
SUNNonlinSolSysFn
.If this function is called as part of a custom linear solver (i.e., the default
SUNNonlinSolSysFn
is used) then the vectorsyn
andfn
are only current whenCVodeGetNonlinearSystemData()
is called after an evaluation of the nonlinear system function.

int CVodeComputeState(void *cvode_mem, N_Vector ycor, N_Vector *yn)
The function computes the current \(y(t)\) vector based on stored prediction and the given correction vector from the nonlinear solver i.e., \(y^n = y_{pred} + y_{cor}\).
 Arguments:
cvode_mem
– pointer to the CVODES memory block.ycor
– the correction.yn
– the output vector.
 Return value:
CV_SUCCESS
– The optional output value has been successfully set.CV_MEM_NULL
– The CVODES memory block wasNULL

int CVodeGetCurrentStateSens(void *cvode_mem, N_Vector **yS)
The function
CVodeGetCurrentStateSens()
returns the current sensitivity state vector array. Arguments:
cvode_mem
– pointer to the CVODES memory block.yS
– pointer to the vector array that is set to the current sensitivity state vector array.
 Return value:
CV_SUCCESS
– The optional output value has been successfully set.CV_MEM_NULL
– Thecvode_mem
pointer isNULL
.

int CVodeGetCurrentSensSolveIndex(void *cvode_mem, int *index)
The function
CVodeGetCurrentSensSolveIndex()
returns the index of the current sensitivity solve when using theCV_STAGGERED1
solver. Arguments:
cvode_mem
– pointer to the CVODES memory block.index
– will be set to the index of the current sensitivity solve.
 Return value:
CV_SUCCESS
– The optional output value has been successfully set.CV_MEM_NULL
– Thecvode_mem
pointer isNULL
.

int CVodeGetNonlinearSystemDataSens()
The function
CVodeGetNonlinearSystemDataSens()
returns all internal sensitivity data required to construct the current nonlinear system (11.5) or (11.6). Arguments:
cvode_mem
– pointer to the CVODES memory block.tn
– current value of the independent variable \(t_n\).ySpred
– predicted state vectors \(yS_{i,pred}\) at \(t_n\) for \(i = 0 \dots N_s  1\). This vector must not be changed.ySn
– state vectors \(yS_i^n\) for \(i = 0 \dots N_s  1\). These vectors may be not current see the note below.gamma
– current value of \(\gamma\).rlS1
– a scaling factor used to compute \(\tilde{a}S_n =\)rlS1 * znS1
.znS1
– a vectors used to compute \(\tilde{a}S_{i,n} =\)rlS1 * znS1
.user_data
– pointer to the userdefined data structure.
 Return value:
CV_SUCCESS
– The optional output values have been successfully set.CV_MEM_NULL
– Thecvode_mem
pointer isNULL
.
 Notes:
This routine is intended for users who whish to attach a custom
SUNNonlinSolSysFn
to an existingSUNNonlinearSolver
object (through a call toSUNNonlinSolSetSysFn
) or who need access to nonlinear system data to compute the nonlinear system fucntion as part of a customSUNNonlinearSolver
object. When supplying a customSUNNonlinSolSysFn
to an existingSUNNonlinearSolver
object, the user should callCVodeGetNonlinearSystemDataSens()
inside the nonlinear system function used in the sensitivity nonlinear solve to access the requisite data for evaluting the nonlinear system function of their choosing. This could be the same function used for solving for the new state (the simultaneous approach) or a different function (the staggered or stagggered1 approaches). Additionlly, the vectorsySn
are only provided as additional worksapce and do not need to be filled in by the user’sSUNNonlinSolSysFn
. If this function is called as part of a custom linear solver (i.e., the defaultSUNNonlinSolSysFn
is used) then the vectorsySn
are only current whenCVodeGetNonlinearSystemDataSens()
is called after an evaluation of the nonlinear system function.

int CVodeComputeStateSens(void *cvode_mem, N_Vector *yScor, N_Vector *ySn)
The function computes the current sensitivity vector \(yS(t)\) for all sensitivities based on stored prediction and the given correction vector from the nonlinear solver i.e., \(yS^n = yS_{pred} + yS_{cor}\).
 Arguments:
cvode_mem
– pointer to the CVODES memory block.yScor
– the correction.ySn
– the output vector.
 Return value:
CV_SUCCESS
– The optional output value has been successfully set.CV_MEM_NULL
– Thecvode_mem
pointer isNULL
.

int CVodeComputeStateSens1(void *cvode_mem, sunindextype idx, N_Vector yScor1, N_Vector ySn1)
The function computes the current sensitivity vector \(yS_i(t)\) for the sensitivity at the given index based on stored prediction and the given correction vector from the nonlinear solver i.e., \(yS_i^n = yS_{i,pred} + yS_{i,cor}\).
 Arguments:
cvode_mem
– pointer to the CVODES memory block.index
– the index of the sensitivity to update.yScor1
– the correction.ySn1
– the output vector.
 Return value:
CV_SUCCESS
– The optional output value has been successfully set.CV_MEM_NULL
– Thecvode_mem
pointer isNULL
.
11.5. IDA SUNNonlinearSolver interface
As discussed in Chapter §5.2 each integration step requires the (approximate) solution of the nonlinear system
Rather than solving this system for the new state \(y_n\) IDA reformulates the system to solve for the correction \(y_{cor}\) to the predicted new state \(y_{pred}\) and its derivative \(\dot{y}_{pred}\) so that \(y_n = y_{pred} + y_{cor}\) and \(\dot{y}_n = \dot{y}_{pred} + h_{n}^{1}\, \alpha_{n,0}\, y_{cor}\). The nonlinear system rewritten in terms of \(y_{cor}\) is
where \(\alpha = h_{n}^{1}\, \alpha_{n,0}\).
The nonlinear system function provided by IDA to the nonlinear solver module internally updates the current value of the new state and its derivative based on the input correction vector. The updated vectors are used when calling the DAE residual function and when setting up linear solves (e.g., for updating the Jacobian or preconditioner).
IDA provides several advanced functions that will not be needed by most users,
but might be useful for users who choose to provide their own implementation of
the SUNNonlinearSolver
API. For example, such a user might need access to
the current \(y\) and \(\dot{y}\) vectors to compute Jacobian data.

int IDAGetCurrentCj(void *ida_mem, sunrealtype *cj)
The function
IDAGetCurrentCj
returns the scalar \(c_j\) which is proportional to the inverse of the step size (\(\alpha\) in (11.7)). Arguments:
ida_mem
– pointer to the IDA memory block.cj
– the value of \(c_j\).
 Return value:
IDA_SUCCESS
– The optional output value has been successfully set.IDA_MEM_NULL
– The IDA memory block isNULL
.

int IDAGetCurrentY(void *ida_mem, N_Vector *ycur)
The function
IDAGetCurrentY
returns the current y vector. Arguments:
ida_mem
– pointer to the IDA memory block.y
– the current \(y\) vector.
 Return value:
IDA_SUCCESS
– The optional output value has been successfully set.IDA_MEM_NULL
– The IDA memory block isNULL
.

int IDAGetCurrentYp(void *ida_mem, N_Vector *ypcur)
The function
IDAGetCurrentYp
returns the current \(\dot{y}\) vector. Arguments:
ida_mem
– pointer to the IDA memory block.yp
– the current \(\dot{y}\) vector.
 Return value:
IDA_SUCCESS
– The optional output value has been successfully set.IDA_MEM_NULL
– The IDA memory block isNULL
.

int IDAGetNonlinearSystemData(void *ida_mem, sunrealtype *tcur, N_Vector *yypred, N_Vector *yppred, N_Vector *yyn, N_Vector *ypn, N_Vector *res, sunrealtype *cj, void **user_data)
The function
IDAGetNonlinearSystemData
returns all internal data required to construct the current nonlinear system (11.7). Arguments:
ida_mem
– pointer to the IDA memory block.tcur
– current value of the independent variable \(t_n\).yypred
– predicted value of \(y_{pred}\) at \(t_n\).yppred
– predicted value of \(\dot{y}_{pred}\) at \(t_n\).yyn
– the vector \(y_n\). This vector may not be current and may need to be filled (see the note below).ypn
– the vector \(\dot{y}_n\). This vector may not be current and may need to be filled (see the note below).res
– the resiudal function evaluated at the current time and state, \(F(t_n, y_n, \dot{y}_n)\). This vector may not be current and may need to be filled (see the note below).cj
– the scalar \(c_j\) which is proportional to the inverse of the step size (\(\alpha\) in (11.7)).user_data
– pointer to the userdefined data structures.
 Return value:
IDA_SUCCESS
– The optional output values have been successfully set.IDA_MEM_NULL
– The IDA memory block isNULL
.
 Notes:
This routine is intended for users who wish to attach a custom
SUNNonlinSolSysFn
to an existingSUNNonlinearSolver
object (through a call toSUNNonlinSolSetSysFn()
) or who need access to nonlinear system data to compute the nonlinear system fucntion as part of a customSUNNonlinearSolver
object.When supplying a custom
SUNNonlinSolSysFn
to an existingSUNNonlinearSolver
object, the user should callIDAGetNonlinearSystemData()
inside the nonlinear system function to access the requisite data for evaluting the nonlinear system function of their choosing. Additionlly, if theSUNNonlinearSolver
object (existing or custom) leverages theSUNNonlinSolLSetupFn
and/orSUNNonlinSolLSolveFn
functions supplied by IDA (through calls toSUNNonlinSolSetLSetupFn()
andSUNNonlinSolSetLSolveFn()
respectively) the vectorsyyn
andypn
, andres
must be filled in by the user’sSUNNonlinSolSysFn
with the current state and corresponding evaluation of the righthand side function respectively i.e.,\[\begin{split}\begin{aligned} yyn &= y_{pred} + y_{cor}, \\ ypn &= \dot{y}_{pred} + \alpha \dot{y}_{cor}, \\ res &= F\left(t_{n}, y_n, \dot{y}_n\right), \end{aligned}\end{split}\]and \(f_n = f\left(t_{n}, y^n\right)\) where \(y_{cor}\) was the first argument supplied to the
SUNNonlinSolSysFn
. If this function is called as part of a custom linear solver (i.e., the defaultSUNNonlinSolSysFn
is used) then the vectorsyn
andfn
are only current whenIDAGetNonlinearSystemData()
is called after an evaluation of the nonlinear system function.

int IDAComputeY(void *ida_mem, N_Vector ycor, N_Vector y)
The function computes the current \(y(t)\) vector based on the given correction vector from the nonlinear solver.
 Arguments:
ida_mem
– pointer to the IDA memory block.ycor
– the correction.y
– the output vector.
 Return value:
IDA_SUCCESS
– The optional output value has been successfully set.IDA_MEM_NULL
– The IDA memory block isNULL
.

int IDAComputeYp(void *ida_mem, N_Vector ycor, N_Vector yp)
The function computes \(\dot{y}(t)\).
 Arguments:
ida_mem
– pointer to the IDA memory block.ycor
– the correction.yp
– the output vector array.
 Return value:
IDA_SUCCESS
– The optional output value has been successfully set.IDA_MEM_NULL
– The IDA memory block isNULL
.
11.6. IDAS SUNNonlinearSolver interface
As discussed in Chapter §6.2 each integration step requires the (approximate) solution of the nonlinear system
Rather than solving this system for the new state \(y_n\) IDAS reformulates the system to solve for the correction \(y_{cor}\) to the predicted new state \(y_{pred}\) and its derivative \(\dot{y}_{pred}\) so that \(y_n = y_{pred} + y_{cor}\) and \(\dot{y}_n = \dot{y}_{pred} + h_{n}^{1}\, \alpha_{n,0}\, y_{cor}\). The nonlinear system rewritten in terms of \(y_{cor}\) is
where \(\alpha = h_{n}^{1}\, \alpha_{n,0}\).
Similarly in the forward sensitivity analysis case the nonlinear system is also reformulated in terms of the correction to the predicted sensitivities.
The nonlinear system function provided by IDAS to the nonlinear solver module internally updates the current value of the new state and its derivative based on the current corretion passed to the function (as well as the sensitivities). These values are used when calling the DAE residual function and when setting up linear solves (e.g., for updating the Jacobian or preconditioner).
IDAS provides several advanced functions that will not be needed by most users,
but might be useful for users who choose to provide their own implementation of
the SUNNonlinearSolver
API. For example, such a user might need access to
the current \(y\) and \(\dot{y}\) vectors to compute Jacobian data.

int IDAGetCurrentCj(void *ida_mem, sunrealtype *cj)
The function
IDAGetCurrentCj()
returns the scalar \(c_j\) which is proportional to the inverse of the step size (\(\alpha\) in (6.7)). Arguments:
ida_mem
– pointer to the IDAS memory block.cj
– the value of \(c_j\).
 Return value:
IDA_SUCCESS
– The optional output value has been successfully set.IDA_MEM_NULL
– The IDAS memory block isNULL
.

int IDAGetCurrentY(void *ida_mem, N_Vector *ycur)
The function
IDAGetCurrentY()
returns the current y vector. Arguments:
ida_mem
– pointer to the IDAS memory block.y
– the current \(y\) vector.
 Return value:
IDA_SUCCESS
– The optional output value has been successfully set.IDA_MEM_NULL
– The IDAS memory block isNULL
.

int IDAGetCurrentYp(void *ida_mem, N_Vector *ypcur)
The function
IDAGetCurrentYp()
returns the current \(\dot{y}\) vector. Arguments:
ida_mem
– pointer to the IDAS memory block.yp
– the current \(\dot{y}\) vector.
 Return value:
IDA_SUCCESS
– The optional output value has been successfully set.IDA_MEM_NULL
– The IDAS memory block isNULL
.

int IDAGetCurrentYSens(void *ida_mem, N_Vector **yyS)
The function
IDAGetCurrentYSens()
returns the current sensitivity vector array. Arguments:
ida_mem
– pointer to the IDAS memory block.yyS
– pointer to the vector array that is set to the array of sensitivity vectors.
 Return value:
IDA_SUCCESS
– The optional output value has been successfully set.IDA_MEM_NULL
– Theida_mem
pointer isNULL
.

int IDAGetCurrentYpSens(void *ida_mem, N_Vector **ypS)
The function
IDAGetCurrentYpSens()
returns the derivative the current sensitivity vector array. Arguments:
ida_mem
– pointer to the IDAS memory block.ypS
– pointer to the vector array that is set to the array of sensitivity vector derivatives.
 Return value:
IDA_SUCCESS
– The optional output value has been successfully set.IDA_MEM_NULL
– Theida_mem
pointer isNULL
.

int IDAGetNonlinearSystemData(void *ida_mem, sunrealtype *tcur, N_Vector *yypred, N_Vector *yppred, N_Vector *yyn, N_Vector *ypn, N_Vector *res, sunrealtype *cj, void **user_data)
The function
IDAGetNonlinearSystemData()
returns all internal data required to construct the current nonlinear system (11.8). Arguments:
ida_mem
– pointer to the IDAS memory block.tcur
– current value of the independent variable \(t_n\).yypred
– predicted value of \(y_{pred}\) at \(t_n\).yppred
– predicted value of \(\dot{y}_{pred}\) at \(t_n\).yyn
– the vector \(y_n\). This vector may not be current and may need to be filled (see the note below).ypn
– the vector \(\dot{y}_n\). This vector may not be current and may need to be filled (see the note below).res
– the resiudal function evaluated at the current time and state, \(F(t_n, y_n, \dot{y}_n)\). This vector may not be current and may need to be filled (see the note below).cj
– the scalar \(c_j\) which is proportional to the inverse of the step size (\(\alpha\) in (11.8)).user_data
– pointer to the userdefined data structures.
 Return value:
IDA_SUCCESS
– The optional output values have been successfully set.IDA_MEM_NULL
– The IDAS memory block isNULL
.
 Notes:
This routine is intended for users who wish to attach a custom
SUNNonlinSolSysFn
to an existingSUNNonlinearSolver
object (through a call toSUNNonlinSolSetSysFn()
) or who need access to nonlinear system data to compute the nonlinear system fucntion as part of a customSUNNonlinearSolver
object.When supplying a custom
SUNNonlinSolSysFn
to an existingSUNNonlinearSolver
object, the user should callIDAGetNonlinearSystemData()
inside the nonlinear system function to access the requisite data for evaluting the nonlinear system function of their choosing. Additionlly, if theSUNNonlinearSolver
object (existing or custom) leverages theSUNNonlinSolLSetupFn
and/orSUNNonlinSolLSolveFn
functions supplied by IDAS (through calls toSUNNonlinSolSetLSetupFn()
andSUNNonlinSolSetLSolveFn()
respectively) the vectorsyyn
andypn
, andres
must be filled in by the user’sSUNNonlinSolSysFn
with the current state and corresponding evaluation of the righthand side function respectively i.e.,\[\begin{split}\begin{aligned} yyn &= y_{pred} + y_{cor}, \\ ypn &= \dot{y}_{pred} + \alpha \dot{y}_{cor}, \\ res &= F\left(t_{n}, y_n, \dot{y}_n\right), \end{aligned}\end{split}\]where \(y_{cor}\) was the first argument supplied to the
SUNNonlinSolSysFn
. If this function is called as part of a custom linear solver (i.e., the defaultSUNNonlinSolSysFn
is used) then the vectorsyn
,ypn
andres
are only current whenIDAGetNonlinearSystemData()
is called after an evaluation of the nonlinear system function.

int IDAGetNonlinearSystemDataSens(void *ida_mem, sunrealtype *tcur, N_Vector **yySpred, N_Vector **ypSpred, N_Vector **yySn, N_Vector **ypSn, sunrealtype *cj, void **user_data)
The function
IDAGetNonlinearSystemDataSens()
returns all internal sensitivity data required to construct the current nonlinear system (11.8). Arguments:
ida_mem
– pointer to the IDAS memory block.tcur
– current value of the independent variable \(t_n\).yySpred
– predicted value of \(yS_{i,pred}\) at \(t_n\) for \(i = 0 \dots N_s  1\).ypSpred
– predicted value of \(\dot{y}S_{i,pred}\) at \(t_n\) for \(i = 0 \dots N_s  1\).yySn
– the vectors \(yS_{i,n}\). These vectors may be not current see the note below.ypSn
– the vectors \(\dot{y}S_{i,n}\). These vectors may be not current see the note below.cj
– the scalar \(c_j\) which is proportional to the inverse of the step size \(\alpha\) in (6.7).user_data
– pointer to the userdefined data structures
 Return value:
IDA_SUCCESS
– The optional output values have been successfully set.IDA_MEM_NULL
– Theida_mem
pointer isNULL
.
 Notes:
This routine is intended for users who wish to attach a custom
SUNNonlinSolSysFn
to an existingSUNNonlinearSolver
object (through a call toSUNNonlinSolSetSysFn()
) or who need access to nonlinear system data to compute the nonlinear system fucntion as part of a customSUNNonlinearSolver
object. When supplying a customSUNNonlinSolSysFn
to an existingSUNNonlinearSolver
object, the user should callIDAGetNonlinearSystemDataSens()
inside the nonlinear system function to access the requisite data for evaluting the nonlinear system function of their choosing. Additionlly, if the the vectorsyySn
andypSn
are provided as additional workspace and do not need to be filled in by the user’sSUNNonlinSolSysFn
. If this function is called as part of a custom linear solver (i.e., the defaultSUNNonlinSolSysFn
is used) then the vectorsyySn
andypSn
are only current whenIDAGetNonlinearSystemDataSens()
is called after an evaluation of the nonlinear system function.

int IDAComputeY(void *ida_mem, N_Vector ycor, N_Vector y)
The function computes the current \(y(t)\) vector based on the given correction vector from the nonlinear solver.
 Arguments:
ida_mem
– pointer to the IDAS memory block.ycor
– the correction.y
– the output vector.
 Return value:
IDA_SUCCESS
– The optional output value has been successfully set.IDA_MEM_NULL
– The IDAS memory block isNULL
.

int IDAComputeYp(void *ida_mem, N_Vector ycor, N_Vector yp)
The function computes \(\dot{y}(t)\) based on the given correction vector from the nonlinear solver.
 Arguments:
ida_mem
– pointer to the IDAS memory block.ycor
– the correction.yp
– the output vector array.
 Return value:
IDA_SUCCESS
– The optional output value has been successfully set.IDA_MEM_NULL
– The IDAS memory block isNULL
.

int IDAComputeYSens(void *ida_mem, N_Vector *ycorS, N_Vector *yys)
The function computes the sensitivities based on the given correction vector from the nonlinear solver.
 Arguments:
ida_mem
– pointer to the IDAS memory block.ycorS
– the correction.yyS
– the output vector array.
 Return value:
IDA_SUCCESS
– The optional output value has been successfully set.IDA_MEM_NULL
– Theida_mem
pointer isNULL
.

int IDAComputeYpSens(void *ida_mem, N_Vector *ycorS, N_Vector *ypS)
The function computes the sensitivity derivatives based on the given correction vector from the nonlinear solver.
 Arguments:
ida_mem
– pointer to the IDAS memory block.ycorS
– the correction.ypS
– the output vector array.
 Return value:
IDA_SUCCESS
– The optional output value has been successfully set.IDA_MEM_NULL
– Theida_mem
pointer isNULL
.